Ribbon Speakers

Ribbon speakers diaphragm   The diaphragm of a ribbon loudspeaker is conductive and it is positioned in a transverse magnetic field. It is also supported at each end. Current flowing along the diaphragm creates a force perpendicular to it. The mechanism produces...

Subwoofer Speakers

Subwoofer 101   Subwoofers present a unique chance to design arrays outside of the ruleset found for full-range speakers. Subwoofer arrays have two unique features that open the door of opportunity. The first is that subwoofers are in separate enclosures that...

Crystal Microphones

  What is a Crystal Microphone?   The crystal microphone is the type most widely used in lower cost installations. It has relatively high output level and high impedance. A long cable will reduce the high output voltage available from a crystal microphone...

Phase Shifting & Time Delay

What is Phase shifting?   Phase shifting is essentially in the core of every audio filter or equalizer. For example, all-pass filters are the heart of phase-shifting effects. They can create an artificial stereo from a mono sound source. Flanging effect is...

Step Sequencer

What is a step sequencer?   Step sequencers were originally hardware modules. They produced a limited number of control signals in a steady, pulsed sequence that kept repeating until deactivated. The output of the signal could be sent to some other synthesizer...